The most important configuration file for the project is
settings.py located under
mainproject. This file would need to be reviewed and edited for each instance of the server. Most settings in it are already at reasonable (or correct) values and those that are most likely to be edited are stored in a separate file called
.env in the root directory. This file is part of the Python Decouple tool, which allows you to organize the project’s settings without having to edit the version controlled settings file and, most importantly, for keeping secrets out of version control. Each value in
settings.py that is set using the
config function should have a corresponding entry in
.env, unless you are satisfied with the default value. See
env.example in the root directory for example contents.
If you make a copy of
env.example in the root directory do not use the default
SECRET_KEY! The one in
env.example is only an example. You can use it to quickly set up a test environment on your personal computer but before running a real server, you should generate your own and store it in
.env. Using the default value could allow attackers to generate their own signed values and have unauthorized access to the database API.
When this is set up, start the server with
localhost:8000 in your web browser. You can browse the site just like the public one, but you will notice that there are no materials in the database. This is because the running instance is connected to an empty database, whether it’s MySQL/MariaDB, SQLite, or some other flavor. This can be fixed by importing the database contents from the production server to the local database. Note that it is generally better to use the same database type in both development and production environments. This project is developed with MariaDB in mind and it is recommended for you to set it up on your own computer. In order to use MariaDB, make sure
USE_SQLITE is set to
.env or remove that variable altogether.
Importing an existing database (optional)
When deploying a new MatD3 server, you can start with an empty database or import an existing one. Here we show the steps for copying the database over for the example of materials.hybrid3.duke.edu.
Note that the materials.hybrid3.duke.edu server address functions as a placeholder here - in general, the process is intended to work with any MatD3 materials database and is not contingent on the specific data stored at materials.hybrid3.duke.edu.
- Install and start the MariaDB server on your computer. Create a database called “materials” for the user “user” (you can change the latter).
- Copy the database contents from the public server. First, log in to the server, e.g.
- Fetch the entire database contents:
mysqldump -u <db_user> -p materials > dump.sql
- Copy the dump file to your computer, e.g.
scp <user>@materials.hybrid3.duke.edu:/home/<user>/dump.sql .
- Create a local database called materials:
mysql -u <db_user> -p<pwd> -Bse "DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS materials;CREATE DATABASE materials;"
- Read the contents into the local database:
mysql -u <db_user> -p materials < dump.sql
You may now delete the dump file on the server and on your computer.
- Finally, copy over the media files. Here we assume that the current directory is
mainprojectwhich is in the root MatD3 directory:
scp -r <user>@materials.hybrid3.duke.edu:/var/www/hybrid3-database/mainproject/media .
You might need to adjust some of these steps to reflect your environment. Now restart the development server and you should be able to browse all the materials currently present in the database.
If you want to go back to SQLite instead of MariaDB for development, you can migrate the database to SQLite using the following script:
Next, you should create a superuser:
python manage.py createsuperuser
In order to access the site with admin rights, use the
/admin entrypoint and login as the superuser. The admin page allows editing of all data stored in the database.
Typically, when making changes to the Python source code, the effects are immediately visible at the site. There is no need to even restart the server. New byte-code is automatically regenerated for modified files. However, if you are making changes to the models, it is necessary to
migrate. Migrations change the database structure, which depends on changes in the models. Unlike the byte-code, which regenerates itself on-the-fly as needed, any updates to the database need to be performed manually. Thus, if you change a model, things are unlikely to work until you migrate. To create the migration files, issue
python manage.py makemigrations
This creates a file in the migrations directory that explains the changes that were made to the models, but it does not change anything about the database yet. The idea is to give you a chance to review the changes before applying them and, if necessary, make further modifications by hand. Next, run the migrations (this will write and apply the SQL statements for you) with
python manage.py migrate
Once you are satisfied with the changes on your local machine, the changes need to be synchronized with the real website. This is done using the Git version control system.
to see which files have been modified. Run
on each file you want to commit. Similarly, run
on each file you want to remove from version control (don’t remove them with
In order to commit, issue
which prompts you with the commit message before the actual commit is performed. The basics of how to write a commit message are well explained in this blog post: https://chris.beams.io/posts/git-commit. In short, start with a summary line consisting of no more than 50 characters, not followed by a period. Leave a blank line followed by further description if necessary. For small commits, just the summary line may be sufficient. Write the whole commit message in the imperative tense (i.e. “Fix typo” not “Fixed typo”). Attention: never run
git commit -a unless you are an experienced Git user! Finally, issue
to push the committed files to GitLab.
Git comes with tons of useful commands and being proficient at Git is generally a very useful skill to have. The basics of Git are nicely covered in the first three chapters of the Git book: https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2.